Emotion in negotiation in Hong Kong

Emotion in negotiation



Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process, although it is only in recent years that their effect is being studied. Emotions have the potential to play either a positive or negative role in negotiation. During negotiations, the decision as to whether or not to settle rests in part on emotional factors. Negative emotions can cause intense and even irrational behavior, and can cause conflicts to escalate and negotiations to break down, but may be instrumental in attaining concessions. On the other hand, positive emotions often facilitate reaching an agreement and help to maximize joint gains, but can also be instrumental in attaining concessions. Positive and negative discrete emotions can be strategically displayed to influence task and relational outcomes[12] and may play out differently across cultural boundaries.[13]

Affect effect


Dispositional affects affect the various stages of the negotiation process: which strategies are planned to be used, which strategies are actually chosen,[14] the way the other party and his or her intentions are perceived,[15] their willingness to reach an agreement and the final negotiated outcomes.[16] Positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) of one or more of the negotiating sides can lead to very different outcomes.

Positive affect in negotiation


Even before the negotiation process starts, people in a positive mood have more confidence,[17] and higher tendencies to plan to use a cooperative strategy.[14] During the negotiation, negotiators who are in a positive mood tend to enjoy the interaction more, show less contentious behavior, use less aggressive tactics[18] and more cooperative strategies.[14] This in turn increases the likelihood that parties will reach their instrumental goals, and enhance the ability to find integrative gains.[19] Indeed, compared with negotiators with negative or natural affectivity, negotiators with positive affectivity reached more agreements and tended to honor those agreements more.[14] Those favorable outcomes are due to better decision making processes, such as flexible thinking, creative problem solving, respect for others' perspectives, willingness to take risks and higher confidence.[20] Post negotiation positive affect has beneficial consequences as well. It increases satisfaction with achieved outcome and influences one's desire for future interactions.[20] The PA aroused by reaching an agreement facilitates the dyadic relationship, which result in affective commitment that sets the stage for subsequent interactions.[20]

PA also has its drawbacks: it distorts perception of

self performance,

such that performance is judged to be relatively better than it actually is.[17] Thus, studies involving self reports on achieved outcomes might be biased.

Negative affect in negotiation


Negative affect has detrimental effects on various stages in the negotiation process. Although various negative emotions affect negotiation outcomes, by far the most researched is anger. Angry negotiators plan to use more competitive strategies and to cooperate less, even before the negotiation starts.[14] These competitive strategies are related to reduced joint outcomes. During negotiations, anger disrupts the process by reducing the level of trust, clouding parties' judgment, narrowing parties' focus of attention and changing their central goal from reaching agreement to retaliating against the other side.[18] Angry negotiators pay less attention to opponent’s interests and are less accurate in judging their interests, thus achieve lower joint gains.[21] Moreover, because anger makes negotiators more self-centered in their preferences, it increases the likelihood that they will reject profitable offers.[18] Opponents who really get angry (or cry, or otherwise lose control) are more likely to make errors: make sure they are in your favor.[3] Anger does not help in achieving negotiation goals either: it reduces joint gains[14] and does not help to boost personal gains, as angry negotiators do not succeed in claiming more for themselves.[21] Moreover, negative emotions lead to acceptance of settlements that are not in the positive utility function but rather have a negative utility.[22] However, expression of negative emotions during negotiation can sometimes be beneficial: legitimately expressed anger can be an effective way to show one's commitment, sincerity, and needs.[18] Moreover, although NA reduces gains in integrative tasks, it is a better strategy than PA in distributive tasks (such as zero-sum).[20] In his work on negative affect arousal and white noise, Seidner found support for the existence of a negative affect arousal mechanism through observations regarding the devaluation of speakers from other ethnic origins." Negotiation may be negatively affected, in turn, by submerged hostility toward an ethnic or gender group.[23]

Conditions for emotion affect in negotiation


Research indicates that negotiator’s emotions do not necessarily affect the negotiation process. Albarrac─▒n et al. (2003) suggested that there are two conditions for emotional affect, both related to the ability (presence of environmental or cognitive disturbances) and the motivation:

Identification of the affect: requires high motivation, high ability or both.


Determination that the affect is relevant and important for the judgment: requires that either the motivation, the ability or both are low.
According to this model, emotions are expected to affect negotiations only when one is high and the other is low. When both ability and motivation are low the affect will not be identified, and when both are high the affect will be identify but discounted as irrelevant for judgment.[24] A possible implication of this model is, for example, that the positive effects PA has on negotiations (as described above) will be seen only when either motivation or ability are low.

The effect of the partner’s emotions


Most studies on emotion in negotiations focus on the effect of the negotiator’s own emotions on the process. However, what the other party feels might be just as important, as group emotions are known to affect processes both at the group and the personal levels. When it comes to negotiations, trust in the other party is a necessary condition for its emotion to affect,[15] and visibility enhances the effect.[19] Emotions contribute to negotiation processes by signalling what one feels and thinks and can thus prevent the other party from engaging in destructive behaviours and to indicate what steps should be taken next: PA signals to keep in the same way, while NA points that mental or behavioural adjustments are needed.[20]

Partner’s emotions can have two basic effects on negotiator’s emotions and behaviour: mimetic/ reciprocal or complementary.[16] For example, disappointment or sadness might lead to compassion and more cooperation.[20] In a study by Butt et al. (2005) which simulated real multi-phase negotiation, most people reacted to the partner’s emotions in reciprocal, rather than complementary, manner. Specific emotions were found to have different effects on the opponent’s feelings and strategies chosen:

Anger

caused the opponents to place lower demands and to concede more in a zero-sum negotiation, but also to evaluate the negotiation less favourably.[25] It provoked both dominating and yielding behaviours of the opponent.[16]

Pride

led to more integrative and compromise strategies by the partner.[16]

Guilt or regret

expressed by the negotiator led to better impression of him by the opponent, however it also led the opponent to place higher demands.[15] On the other hand, personal guilt was related to more satisfaction with what one achieved.[20]

Worry or disappointment

left bad impression on the opponent, but led to relatively lower demands by the opponent.[15]

Source: Wikipedia

References

12 Kopelman, S., Rosette, A., and Thompson, L. (2006). The three faces of eve: Strategic displays of positive neutral and negative emotions in negotiations. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes (OBHDP), 99 (1), 81-101.
13 Kopelman, S. and Rosette, A.S. (2008). Cultural variation in response to strategic display of emotions in negotiations. Special Issue on Emotion and Negotiation in Group Decision and Negotiation (GDN), 17 (1) 65-77.
14 Forgas, J. P. (1998) "On feeling good and getting your way: Mood effects on negotiator cognition and behavior". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 565–577.
15 Van Kleef, G.A., De Dreu, C.KW., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2006) "Supplication and Appeasement in Conflict and Negotiation: The Interpersonal Effects of Disappointment, Worry, Guilt, and Regret". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 124–142
16. Butt AN, Choi JN, Jaeger A (2005) "The effects of self-emotion, counterpart emotion, and counterpart behavior on negotiator behavior: a comparison of individual-level and dyad-level dynamics". Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(6), 681 - 704
17. Kramer, R. M., Newton, E. & Pommerenke, P. L. (1993) "Self-enhancement biases and negotiator judgment: Effects of self-esteem and mood". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 56, 110-133.
18. Maiese, Michelle "Emotions" Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: July 2005 downloaded: 30.08.2007
19. Carnevale, P. J. D. & Isen, A. M. (1986) "The influence of positive affect and visual access on the discovery of integrative solutions in bilateral negotiation". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37, 1-13.
20. Barry, B., Fulmer, I. S., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2004) I laughed, I cried, I settled: The role of emotion in negotiation. In M. J. Gelfand & J. M. Brett (Eds.), The handbook of negotiation and culture (pp. 71–94). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
21. Allred, K. G., Mallozzi, J. S., Matsui, F., & Raia, C. P. (1997) "The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 175–187.
22. Davidson, M. N., & Greenhalgh, L. (1999) "The role of emotion in negotiation: The impact of anger and race". Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 7, 3–26.
23. Seidner, Stanley S. (1991), Negative Affect Arousal Reactions from Mexican and Puerto Rican Respondents, Washington, D.C.: ERIC, ISBN ED346711 http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED346711&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED346711
23. Albarracin D. & Kumkale, G.T. (2003) "Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3) 453-469.